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基于土壤源热泵路面融雪系统的实验研究
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摘要
我国北方冬季路面积雪坚硬湿滑造成交通事故频发,在城市高速公路、高架桥、坡道、急弯路以及机场跑道等重要路段采用融雪化冰措施具有实际意义。传统的融雪方式存在不足,使得在工程应用中受到限制,尤其融雪剂融雪给环境带来许多负面影响,不少国家和地区已开始禁用。土壤源热泵路面融雪是将地源热泵和融雪相结合的用能方式,冬季给路面融雪夏季通冷水给持续高温的路面降温减少沥青软化,是一高效、节能、环保的技术。
     本课题开展了一系列基于土壤源热泵的路面融雪化冰实验的系统性能研究,分析各个特征点温度随时间变化规律,研究路面结构层内温度变化特性和融化率变化特性;讨论分析了路面雪层融化效果的评价方法;研究路面埋管间距、埋管深度这结构因素对融雪进程及融化效果的影响;并探讨路面埋管合适的埋置深度的计算方法。
     在实验研究的基础上,计算了国内不同气候区典型城市的冬季融雪负荷,以哈尔滨、沈阳、北京、武汉四个气候地区代表城市为研究地点,选取目前国内外研究及应用较多的融雪技术进行比较,用动态费用年值法分析评价土壤源热泵路面融雪系统用于我国不同地区的经济性,得出不同地区土壤源热泵路面融雪技术均较发热电缆融技术经济,在夏热冬冷地区土壤源热泵路面融雪的使用效益显著。
     本课题来源于“十一五”国家科技支撑计划重点项目——“城市综合交通系统功能提升与设施建设关键技术研究”(课题编号:2006BAJ18B05-04)。
In the northern region of China, the accumulation of snow in winter on the pavement o ften c auses t raffic ac cident, Snow-clearing a t th e imp ortant lo cations such as the freeway, pedestrian bridge, ramp and airfield runway has an important practical significance t o e nsure r oad t raffic s afe a nd unbl ocked. Traditional snow-melting methods have respective shortcomings which make them restricted in engineering a pplications. In pa rticular, m any countries a nd r egions forbid us ing snowmelt agent because of its negative impact to the environment. Snow-melting on pavement based on ground source heat pumps achieves that the snow on pavement be melt in winter and the pavement be cool in winter to reduce asphalt softening with the cold water. It is efficient, energy saving and environmental friendly.
     In this paper, the experimental study on the snow-melting on pavement based on gr ound-source H eat P ump i s m ainly carried out . T he a uthor analyzes the regularity for change of temperature of the various metrical points in the structure layer of road along with the heating time, researches the distribution of temperature of t he r oad s tructure l ayer and the property of variable melting r ate, b esides, explores the e valuate methods of t he s now-melting. Then, analyzes how the arrangement of the h eating pipes such as the pipe spacing and depth effects the snow-melting process and situation, and discuss the calculation method of the depth of buried pipe.
     Based on environmental study, this paper figures out snow-melting load of the freeway in winter, beginning with the study of the climate of four areas-Harbin, Shenyang, Beijing, Wuhan, analyzes the feasibility of the snow-melting technology according to the climate characteristic of every city, and chooses a commonly used snow-melting technology, and carries on comparative analysis with one based on ground source Heat Pump system. Economic evaluation of each project is carried out with annual cost approach through the initial cost and operating expenses of every p roject which is o btained. The c onclusion w hich s now-melting ba sed on ground s ource he at pum ps i s m ore e conomical w ay c ompared w ith th e snow-melting b y el ectrical heating wire, a nd t he be nefit i s r emarkable i f the snow-melting based on ground source heat pumps is used in hot summer and cold winter zone.
     The topic is from the key project of the“Eleventh Five-Year Plan”National Science a nd T echnology S upport P roject-“Key Technology R esearch Comprehensive Transportation System Promotion and Facilities Construction in the City”(No.2006BAJ18B05-04).
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