[Display omitted] • We have divided the mafic magmatism of the Kalatongke sulfide deposit into mainly two stages. • The mafic magmatism in early stage formed the sulfide-barren suite and in later stage formed the sulfide-rich suite. • The two suites are possibly derived from one magma chamber at different evolved stages in a compressive setting. The Kalatongke Cu-Ni sulfide deposit in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is hosted by the early Permian mafic intrusions. After conducting a detailed field survey, we found that the massive sulfide ores and network olivine gabbro were emplaced separately into the dominant sulfide-barren mafic suite. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were performed for zircon U-Pb dating to determine the ages of rocks derived from the sulfide-rich suites and adjacent sulfide-barren suites. The results revealed that the U-Pb ages of olivine gabbro with network ore, gabbro with globular ore and breccia ore are 276.0 1.1, 272.4 0.9 and 271.9 1.3 Ma, respectively. Biotite diorite in the Y1 intrusion, biotite gabbro and biotite norite in the Y2 intrusion presented with ages of 287.4 1.1, 281.7 3.0 and 286.7 1.1 Ma, respectively. Combined with the published data, our findings demonstrated that the Kalatongke sulfide deposit experienced two stages of magma replenishment, lasting at least 16 Myr (287–271 Ma). The sulfide-rich magmas were most likely transported upward from the staging chamber via magma overpressure attributable to considerable tectonic compressive stresses. It could be proposed that the sulfide-rich magmas were derived from a strongly evolved magma chamber, whereas the sulfide-barren mafic suite was related to the emplacement of a weakly evolved magma in the same or a related plumbing system.